Here I'm asking about Western boxing specifically, both in terms of the modern & contemporary sport, and historical European boxing (John L. Sullivan and earlier.)
- Is the hammer fist used in Western Boxing?
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Boxing rules require striking with the knuckles, which will render illegal both hammerfists and backfists. More specifically, from the USA Boxing National Rule Book, and their list of boxing fouls (emphasis mine):
Hitting with open glove, the inside of the glove, wrist or side of the hand
Of course, if you go back far enough, I'm sure there have been versions of boxing where hammerfists have been legal and have been used, especially in early barehanded bouts before they decided to introduce gloves to eliminate grabs in boxing.