I am 33 years old and I have a bad hip (due to a medical condition). Can I still learn/practice judo?
(keeping my fingers crossed for positive answers)
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First and foremost, you do not describe your "bad hip" which could range from a small inconvenience to risk of paralysis if things go wrong. Clearly, speaking to a medical professional is essential here. If they give you the go head, keep reading.
Second, you will never compete in the Olympics. So, you need to find a dojo that caters more to older people than to young sport oriented folks. Clearly, the instructor team should know about your hip and might change things so you can practice safely.
Finally, no one can protect you better than yourself. So, when you see something that you think will hurt, do not do it. Take care of yourself. Speak to your training partners.
I'm 50 and among my problems I count a hip.
The major risk is with back techniques like ko-uchi-maki-komi or o-soto-otoshi as uke. These two techniques may be hazardous for an uke with a weak hip who would try to avoid falling on the back, which is the case in randori. Because you bear weight on just a single leg in a bad rear position, sometimes locked, your weight plus tori's weight multiplied by speed and sincerity of his attack. You could face same risk with tani-otoshi. Anyway, it's more obvious to feel than to explain.
So if you want to keep doing randoris I advise you to prevent these harmful techniques by shifting your center of gravity towards the front and moving using tsugi-ashi. Of course, you'll take it ippon and harai more often, but if you have good ukemis it's fun because safe for your hip.
Trust in me when I daresay you can practise judo with a bad hip. I keep on fighting in shiai tournaments one sunday per month to gain points. And I know what is bad for me and how to keep on fighting in spite of an injury. That's the miracle of judo.