In movie "Never Back Down: No Surrender (2016)", Michael Jai White is seen practising a footwork technique shown below.
Is there any such technique in Karate? If so, what is it?
It's hard to say without better context, but that looks like a standard Side Step drill, as seen here. Diagonal step in, kick. Repeat on the other side. The duct tape provides a tactile and visual guide for the steps. The image on the wall provides a target.
You can see similar duct-tape diagrams in this boxing footwork tutorial and I know that my SCA light fencing class similarly used them to teach the technique of a diagonal step and counter-attack.
As Steve Weigand noted in the comments, it is commonly covered in karate. I personally experienced one-step drills in Tang Soo Do (later changed to Chun Kuk Do) and Tae Kwan Do.