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In martial arts which permit submissions, a distinction is sometimes made between "chokes" and "strangles", however in my experience these terms are not used consistently.

What is the difference between these?

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The two* main mechanisms of choking technique are:

  1. "blood" choke: compresses the sides of the neck, restricting arterial flow
    • AKA: strangle, strangulation, stranglehold, sleeper hold, carotid restraint, vascular neck restraint, chokehold
  2. "air" choke: compresses the throat (trachea), restricting breathing
    • AKA: choke, chokehold, tracheal choke, throttle

However the terminology for these techniques is inconsistent and often ambiguous, differing between dialects (e.g. British vs American English) and contexts (different martial arts, forensics, law enforcement etc), with various terms referring to either or both techniques (e.g. choke(hold), strangle(hold), neck hold).

This ambiguity is perhaps due to the nature of the techniques - given resistance from the defender, different angles of application, and the variant sizes of people's forearms and necks, any particular technique may induce either or both of these mechanisms.


* Note, in Judo and BJJ there is a third category of 'constriction' techniques (shime-waza):
3. body constrictions: compressing the chest and/or abdomen to restrict breathing.
    • AKA: body crushes, body compressions

  • I remember this one confusing me very much as a child, as "strangle" always sounded more like cutting off air supply, although it made more sense if you imagine someone choking on their food, which would cut off their air, but not compress the bloodflow. – Sean Duggan Sep 24 at 11:04
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    I agree there are distinct blood and air mechanisms for chokes/strangles. I disagree that the terms choke and strangle are used in any consistent or systematic way to distinguish between the blood and air mechanisms. – mattm Sep 24 at 15:27
  • @mattm ah, I didn't intend to imply the terminology was consistent, will reword it to make it clearer. – ukemi Sep 24 at 15:30

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