14

First, you need to ask your instructors and senior students about anything you see them turning their noses up to. Do this reflexively. Always ask why. If they have no good answer for you, other than that they just don't do it, then that's your answer. Otherwise, this is the sort of question that will lead to a much better understanding of Brazilian ...


13

Earliest examples of wrestling Wrestling has been a part of most societies since time-immemorial: Fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan, Egypt ca. 2,000 BC. The earliest known historical European descriptions of wrestling techniques are from classical antiquity: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 466 (c. 200 CE, Greece). And the earliest known manuals are from Chinese ...


12

Disclaimer: I am a judo ikkyu who prefers osotogari but doesn't have an osotoguruma to speak of. I will be using the opinions of more knowledgable judoka to inform this answer. Judo throws are named and grouped by their telltale action. That is, the names are a pedagogical tool to delineate the various body mechanics one can use to throw an opponent. That's ...


12

You do not purposefully give your back. You do not "give" anything. Applied correctly, your back is safe. There are some misconceptions here. You do not simply "give your back". Throwing is something you should only do when you are in control of your own and your opponent's balance. It is fast, it is powerful, and it may well break your opponent's hip when ...


9

If you are 75 kg, then you should not have a problem throwing an opponent who is 102 kg with a basic hip throw. The major hip throw (ogoshi) is the first hip throw in the judo curriculum. It's simplest to start with throwing ogoshi slowly because ogoshi has the nice property that you can stop mid-throw. It's easiest to understand the mechanics while ...


9

Yes, playing judo introduces the risk of brain injury. Judo is a contact sport. Competitive judo is a very contact sport. If you play rough and don't take ukemi properly, you risk concussion. The risk is not as great as in boxing or striking arts. The risk is manageable for nearly all trainees, especially people who don't compete at the elite levels or who ...


9

I take Toshiro Daigo's book Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques to be the official word on throw classification. Daigo is the chief instructor at the Kodokan, the mother school of judo in Tokyo, Japan. obi-tori gaeshi (sutemi version) is hikkikomi gaeshi The top player in the lightweight class was a man named Stepanov, who inflicted pain on many Japanese ...


8

Most throws in BJJ descend from western wrestling, or Judo. In both of these arts, the focus is on taking the opponents balance. Resisting one of these throws does not matter much: if someone is good, you can strain all you like against their seio nage, but basic physics cannot be violated, and if your balance is taken you will end up safely thrown to ...


8

The Kodokan still recognizes 67 official throwing techniques, but not all of them are allowed in competition, and some of them have been banned in competition for some time. The whole classification of throws is a messy business. The differentiating points are sometimes rather arcane: why does it matter if tori is holding the belt or not in performing a ...


7

Based on this NYTimes article: The frequency of judo deaths in Japan gives 108 deaths since 1983. I will not paraphrase the article but other nationality report no deaths in the last decade or so. I am going to assume that those deaths were directly resulting from judo and not just happened while judo was going on. Thus your risk of dying are increased if ...


7

The role of body type in deciding tokuiwaza The shape, strengths, mobilities, and capabilities most certainly have an effect on which techniques are most appropriate to use and develop. However, it is difficult to determine the preferences of one's body before choosing. One must also be alert to the body rejecting certain techniques due to a fixable ...


7

I find wristlock throws to sometimes be frowned upon because they are somewhat dangerous due to the speed with which they must be applied to be successful, and their unfamiliarity. Unfamiliarity can be fixed, just like leglocks are currently undergoing a normalization process in the community, or like wristlocks-as-a-submission are better recognized in BJJ....


7

This looks like a kouchi-makikomi. In this video's variation, tori is first entering for a sode-tsurikomi-goshi, and tori's head ends up in a similar position to a front headlock. There is no requirement that uke have a front headlock hold for the throw to be classified as a kouchi-makikomi. The key classification elements to a kouchi-makikomi are: reaping ...


6

The main risk for a detached retina is head impact, not necessarily eye impact. Although, yes, you want to avoid getting punched, kicked, or poked in the eyes. Although it does put an emphasis on falling safely and gently, Aikido still results in high impact forces hitting the ground. This is especially true with a technique like irimi nage which requires a ...


6

Foot sweeps Assuming that your objective is to put the opponent on the ground and not actually lift them, foot sweeps are the throw that will work for the greatest size disparity. Foot sweeps work on the principle of attacking your opponent's foot at the instant they are changing weight on a foot, either lifting it up or placing it down. At this instant, ...


6

Excerpt of Canonical Answer This quotation is attributed to Kyuzo Mifune on page 162 of Kodokan Judo: Throwing Techniques by Toshiro Daigo. Sweeping is similar to brushing an extremely light object away. When hooking, you execute the technique as if pulling a rooted plant out from the ground. Reaping is similar to the movement of reaping and cutting off a ...


6

DO NOT GIVE UP YOUR BACK. Not only is this bad habit in competition, but this can become a bad habit in the case of a real altercation, which could cause serious harm. In competition, as the other answers illustrate, you are very susceptible to a rear-naked choke, and if you would ever develop a habit of that in a real fight situation, you could be hit ...


5

If the image below describes the technique accurately, I would say it is because uke's legs form a wheel (or a circle) in the air. However, I have no official source for this.


5

According to the following paper, Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention: severe injuries in judo are rare, but when they do occur they are mostly to the brain and spine, mostly occur during throws (as opposed to chokes), and mostly occur due to 'bad falling' repeatedly being thrown (as a competitive judoka) ...


5

Tomoe (巴) refers to a circular anti-symmetric symbol commonly found in Japanese heraldry. The usage in the judo throw specifically refers to the two-tailed version, futatsu-domoe: This is very similar to the Chinese taijitu ("yin-yang" symbol) ☯, or Korean taegeuk (famously appearing on South Korea's flag) 🇰🇷. Tomoe-nage is named as such because Kano ...


5

Grabbing neck to throw This is illegal. Judo kata has many techniques that are forbidden in sport judo because it is only safe to practice them in controlled situations. As a referee I would call hansoku-make for IJF SOR: Article 18.5 (hansoku-make) - Prohibited Acts and Penalties To make any action this may endanger or injure the opponent ...


5

Kubi-nage appears to have been coined by Mikinosuke Kawaishi, as the earliest references to judo throws by this name appear in his works.2 3 He describes it as a hip-throw with the arm wrapped around uke's neck: This is in contrast to his description of koshi-guruma, which uses a standard collar grip without the arm wrapped around the neck. He does note the ...


5

Just to add to MattM's answer, here is how the Kodokan Throwing Techniques video illustrates the difference in the sweeps in the two throws: Yama-arashi same side eri grip off-balancing uke forwards standing directly in front of uke, sweeping upwards leg parallel to uke's legs almost fully in contact Harai-goshi standard collar grip / under-arm grip off-...


5

The Kodokan Judo Nage-waza video illustrates the differences in its section on Osoto-otoshi: Let's look at the differences between osoto-gari and osoto-otoshi. If your opponent's foot goes up in the air, it's osoto-gari. If your opponent's foot remains on the matting as you sweep and he goes down, it's an osoto-otoshi. The Kodokan Judo Throwing ...


5

You absolutely should NOT give up your back in attempt to bait someone into getting in position for a shoulder throw (seoi nage, in judo terms). A competent opponent will break your balance while they are behind you, put you on the ground, and then apply a rear-naked choke (hadaka jime). If your balance is broken, you will not be able to throw. If you want ...


5

It's a suplex (ura-nage in judo terminology). Since standing headlocks are illegal in judo, it is rarely taught from this position, but here is an example of a mechanically similar belly-to-belly version from a bear-hug: Front Ura nage - Shintaro Higashi Note a front headlock/standing guillotine is generally a very weak position to be in, and while this ...


4

It can be very hard to impossible to willingly off-balance an (maybe sub-conciously) uncooperative, stronger opponent, i.e. to have enough kuzushi. That is where Judo (in the very sense of the expression) begins. And as Judo is Jujitsu specialized on throwing (among other things), I will answer purely in this context. I personally had the experience with a ...


4

Judo Kibisu gaeshi The major point in descriptions of kibisu gaeshi is grabbing and reaping of the heel with a hand. The suggested applications of Kibisu gaeshi include continuations both from a seoi nage feint as well as a when your opponent dodges seoi nage by circling towards your front. It also used to be a common continuation from uchi mata, when the ...


4

The All Japan Judo Federation basic instructor course is 2 days of lectures followed by essay questions (at least when I took it last year). There is an extensive section on head injuries, as almost all the deaths mentioned above were as a ressult of head trauma. Primarily multiple blows to the back of the head by unsupervised children, but also, rarely by ...


4

Well, technically 'Guruma' implies a 'rotation', so like in Ashi Guruma in Osoto Guruma you're not just reaping two legs, you're leading your opponent towards a rotating movement around your leg, just like Ashi Guruma. Wheel just indicates the rotation this technique implies. The difference between Osoto Guruma and Osoto Gari, if you will is similar to the ...


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