14

First, you need to ask your instructors and senior students about anything you see them turning their noses up to. Do this reflexively. Always ask why. If they have no good answer for you, other than that they just don't do it, then that's your answer. Otherwise, this is the sort of question that will lead to a much better understanding of Brazilian ...


13

Earliest examples of wrestling Wrestling has been a part of most societies since time-immemorial: Fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan, Egypt ca. 2,000 BC. The earliest known historical European descriptions of wrestling techniques are from classical antiquity: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 466 (c. 200 CE, Greece). And the earliest known manuals are from Chinese ...


12

Disclaimer: I am a judo ikkyu who prefers osotogari but doesn't have an osotoguruma to speak of. I will be using the opinions of more knowledgable judoka to inform this answer. Judo throws are named and grouped by their telltale action. That is, the names are a pedagogical tool to delineate the various body mechanics one can use to throw an opponent. That's ...


12

You do not purposefully give your back. You do not "give" anything. Applied correctly, your back is safe. There are some misconceptions here. You do not simply "give your back". Throwing is something you should only do when you are in control of your own and your opponent's balance. It is fast, it is powerful, and it may well break your opponent's hip when ...


10

Judo competition is not graded on the name of the technique you do. It's graded on whether you throw the opponent on their back, pin them, strangle them, put them in an armlock, or break the rules. So yes, you can use improvised or "unnamed" throws, or non-standard pins and so on, as long as it's not specifically forbidden. But if you've never ...


9

If you are 75 kg, then you should not have a problem throwing an opponent who is 102 kg with a basic hip throw. The major hip throw (ogoshi) is the first hip throw in the judo curriculum. It's simplest to start with throwing ogoshi slowly because ogoshi has the nice property that you can stop mid-throw. It's easiest to understand the mechanics while ...


9

Yes, playing judo introduces the risk of brain injury. Judo is a contact sport. Competitive judo is a very contact sport. If you play rough and don't take ukemi properly, you risk concussion. The risk is not as great as in boxing or striking arts. The risk is manageable for nearly all trainees, especially people who don't compete at the elite levels or who ...


9

I take Toshiro Daigo's book Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques to be the official word on throw classification. Daigo is the chief instructor at the Kodokan, the mother school of judo in Tokyo, Japan. obi-tori gaeshi (sutemi version) is hikkikomi gaeshi The top player in the lightweight class was a man named Stepanov, who inflicted pain on many Japanese ...


8

Most throws in BJJ descend from western wrestling, or Judo. In both of these arts, the focus is on taking the opponents balance. Resisting one of these throws does not matter much: if someone is good, you can strain all you like against their seio nage, but basic physics cannot be violated, and if your balance is taken you will end up safely thrown to ...


8

The Kodokan still recognizes 67 official throwing techniques, but not all of them are allowed in competition, and some of them have been banned in competition for some time. The whole classification of throws is a messy business. The differentiating points are sometimes rather arcane: why does it matter if tori is holding the belt or not in performing a ...


8

This looks like a kouchi-makikomi. In this video's variation, tori is first entering for a sode-tsurikomi-goshi, and tori's head ends up in a similar position to a front headlock. There is no requirement that uke have a front headlock hold for the throw to be classified as a kouchi-makikomi. The key classification elements to a kouchi-makikomi are: reaping ...


7

Based on this NYTimes article: The frequency of judo deaths in Japan gives 108 deaths since 1983. I will not paraphrase the article but other nationality report no deaths in the last decade or so. I am going to assume that those deaths were directly resulting from judo and not just happened while judo was going on. Thus your risk of dying are increased if ...


7

The role of body type in deciding tokuiwaza The shape, strengths, mobilities, and capabilities most certainly have an effect on which techniques are most appropriate to use and develop. However, it is difficult to determine the preferences of one's body before choosing. One must also be alert to the body rejecting certain techniques due to a fixable ...


7

I find wristlock throws to sometimes be frowned upon because they are somewhat dangerous due to the speed with which they must be applied to be successful, and their unfamiliarity. Unfamiliarity can be fixed, just like leglocks are currently undergoing a normalization process in the community, or like wristlocks-as-a-submission are better recognized in BJJ....


7

Excerpt of Canonical Answer This quotation is attributed to Kyuzo Mifune on page 162 of Kodokan Judo: Throwing Techniques by Toshiro Daigo. Sweeping is similar to brushing an extremely light object away. When hooking, you execute the technique as if pulling a rooted plant out from the ground. Reaping is similar to the movement of reaping and cutting off a ...


6

The main risk for a detached retina is head impact, not necessarily eye impact. Although, yes, you want to avoid getting punched, kicked, or poked in the eyes. Although it does put an emphasis on falling safely and gently, Aikido still results in high impact forces hitting the ground. This is especially true with a technique like irimi nage which requires a ...


6

Foot sweeps Assuming that your objective is to put the opponent on the ground and not actually lift them, foot sweeps are the throw that will work for the greatest size disparity. Foot sweeps work on the principle of attacking your opponent's foot at the instant they are changing weight on a foot, either lifting it up or placing it down. At this instant, ...


6

Kubi-nage appears to have been coined by Mikinosuke Kawaishi, as the earliest references to judo throws by this name appear in his works.2 3 He describes it as a hip-throw with the arm wrapped around uke's neck: This is in contrast to his description of koshi-guruma, which uses a standard collar grip without the arm wrapped around the neck. He does note the ...


6

DO NOT GIVE UP YOUR BACK. Not only is this bad habit in competition, but this can become a bad habit in the case of a real altercation, which could cause serious harm. In competition, as the other answers illustrate, you are very susceptible to a rear-naked choke, and if you would ever develop a habit of that in a real fight situation, you could be hit ...


6

I think Sylvie conveys the right feeling in this article: I’ve fought over 100 times in Thailand and honestly I have never had a completely clear picture of what is and is not a legal throw in Muay Thai. There are some very obvious fouls, but others seem a gray area. I’ve had a vague sense that you cannot lift an opponent, or that you can’t “back break”, ...


6

The orthodox BJJ response to someone on your back with hooks is to first strip the hooks then shuck them off, while protecting the neck. One can do this by standing upright and pushing the hooks down, but the more orthodox method is to bend forward to touch the ground, keeping the hips high, in order to make them slip forward over your shoulders once they ...


5

If the image below describes the technique accurately, I would say it is because uke's legs form a wheel (or a circle) in the air. However, I have no official source for this.


5

According to the following paper, Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention: severe injuries in judo are rare, but when they do occur they are mostly to the brain and spine, mostly occur during throws (as opposed to chokes), and mostly occur due to 'bad falling' repeatedly being thrown (as a competitive judoka) ...


5

Tomoe (巴) refers to a circular anti-symmetric symbol commonly found in Japanese heraldry. The usage in the judo throw specifically refers to the two-tailed version, futatsu-domoe: This is very similar to the Chinese taijitu ("yin-yang" symbol) ☯, or Korean taegeuk (famously appearing on South Korea's flag) 🇰🇷. Tomoe-nage is named as such because Kano ...


5

I have seen no official documentation for this decision, so I can only relay what I have heard from international referees on this subject. Olympics The word in US referee clinics at this time was that judo was in danger of being removed from the Olympics because it was too easily confused with existing wrestling events. Remaining in the Olympics was seen ...


5

Grabbing neck to throw This is illegal. Judo kata has many techniques that are forbidden in sport judo because it is only safe to practice them in controlled situations. As a referee I would call hansoku-make for IJF SOR: Article 18.5 (hansoku-make) - Prohibited Acts and Penalties To make any action this may endanger or injure the opponent ...


5

Yama arashi examples from Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques show sweep In Toshiro Daigo's book Kodokan Judo Throwing Techniques published by Kodansha International in 2005, which I consider the best canonical source for throw classification, there are two examples of yama arashi and two examples of throws that are explicitly not yama arashi. All of these ...


5

Just to add to MattM's answer, here is how the Kodokan Throwing Techniques video illustrates the difference in the sweeps in the two throws: Technique Characteristics Example Yama-arashi - same side eri grip- off-balancing uke forwards- standing directly in front of uke, sweeping upwards- leg parallel to uke's- legs almost fully in contact Harai-goshi - ...


5

The Kodokan Judo Nage-waza video illustrates the differences in its section on Osoto-otoshi: Let's look at the differences between osoto-gari and osoto-otoshi. If your opponent's foot goes up in the air, it's osoto-gari. If your opponent's foot remains on the matting as you sweep and he goes down, it's an osoto-otoshi. The Kodokan Judo Throwing ...


5

You absolutely should NOT give up your back in attempt to bait someone into getting in position for a shoulder throw (seoi nage, in judo terms). A competent opponent will break your balance while they are behind you, put you on the ground, and then apply a rear-naked choke (hadaka jime). If your balance is broken, you will not be able to throw. If you want ...


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