What techniques would you choose to train if your goal is self-defense and you have limited training time? Which would be the most effective techniques from any striking or grappling martial art?
The highest priority for self-defense is strength & conditioning. This is 10x more true if you do not have a training partner.
Ideal S&C techniques for limited training time would include deadlifts, chin-ups, barbell squats, overhead press, distance running (by distance, between 1 mile and 5km; by time, up to an hour at a steady pace or fartleking), sprints (normal or up a hill), lunges, kettlebell or dumbbell swings and cleans, and yoga or mobility work.
If any of these are contraindicated by health, then eliminate them from the list and spend more time on the rest.
If, after some months, I had squeezed the juice thoroughly out of those, I would hit a heavy bag.
Self-defense doesn't mean fighting. Self-defense means techniques to ensure your safety/survival in a situation where someone/unknown may want/try to harm you. The first two major lessons in self-defense are awareness and situational capacity.
- Avoid locations you know to be dangerous, best as possible
- Arm yourself Buy a gun.....If you ever have to use violent physical force on another person, shoot em, the legal and ethical ramifications are easier to deal with. Like 90% of the shit you are taught in martial arts class doesn't work. Has never worked, and will never work. If gun laws suck in your state; Learn to knife fight and get a knife with utility appearance. don't buy a tactical looking knife.
I’m not sure of your context. If this is temporary, your instructor is your best bet.
But in the complete absence of an instructor, then the way I’m reading your question is “how do I learn self defense by myself”. In which case, there’s not a whole lot you can do.
Strength and conditioning are useless, IMHO, because such does not teach self defense concepts. If you already have SD training, perhaps that can help. But with none, forget that.
You could practice sprinting, running is a good form of self defense. But if you don’t know how to run, you’ll need a coach.
You could practice firearms, but without an instructor, you’re just firing bullets without any guidance on improvement and technique.
You could work on some conditioning, such as aerobics, like running, biking, hiking, etc. there’s no martial applicability here, but it is nevertheless good for overall health.
You mentioned a hanging bag. That’s fine if you have an instructor to help; barring that you’re just solidifying bad technique.
There’s no shortcut for self defense. If you don’t have an instructor, your self defense capabilities are suspect.
About the only thing you might do is read.
Read about self defense technique, concepts, styles. Learn about lifestyle changes you could do, such as your clothing, your route to school or work, your landscaping, your car, etc.
Fighting techniques are a small part of self-defense.
Just a few other parts: Situational awareness, good safety habits, staying out of rough areas at the wrong times, the ability to defuse situations, the realization that in heated arguments YOU'RE being an a-hole just as much as the other guy, the willingness to leave a bar or area when someone gets in your face, carrying a small flashlight to check out dark parking lots and corners before you approach your car, carrying an old wallet with some cash in it to give to muggers, and the ability to run faster and farther than your assailants and sometimes a bullet or two.
See http://nononsenseselfdefense.com/ - lots and lots of great information that takes several read-thru's to absorb.
A gun is the best self-defense tool, but if you use it you'll probably go to jail, maybe for a few hours, maybe for months until you go to trial for assault or manslaughter or third-degree murder, in which latter case you'll lose your job and have to spend tens of thousands of dollars on lawyers.
About actual fighting techniques - there are dozens of scenarios. Against a single opponent...
Wrestling / ground fighting? Training by yourself, you can probably only watch videos and mentally practice over and over what you'd do if someone grabs your leg or grabs your jacket and trips you.
Striking - Watch videos for tips, then spend lots of time working on a bag, and maybe you'll be able to punch without breaking your hand and not be heaving for breath after 30 seconds. To the head, use palm-strikes to the nose or chin rather than punching. Don't kick above the waist, and only kick above the knees unless you can do so very quickly and powerfully.
Without a coach or training partners, your footwork will be amateurish, you'll be off-balance to some extent without recognizing it because you don't have a partner to take advantage of it, you'll have only makeshift and artificial experience in moving in and out, you'll probably hold your breath too much, and you won't keep your guard up and use head movement consistently.
I enjoy the YouTube channel "How to Defeat Dudes" - seems like sensible self-defense combinations and is entertaining.
fwiw, alternate answer to Dave Liepmann's—work up to a thousand pushups a day on your fists on a hard surface. Will harden your fists without damaging the joints, & strengthen your wrists for punching. If you get attacked, you'll have explosive power and good conditioning.
(This worked for me very well before I started training in martial arts, and I was 110 lbs. at the time. If you don't have solid training, and I'm talking 3 to 4 hours per day for at least a few years, pure viciousness is your only avenue to prevail. Fight like an animal, but have the strength and conditioning to back it up.)
Also read Book of Five Rings, the supreme strategy manual for understanding the warrior mindset, regardless of whether your weapon is a fist or a sword.